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Types and development directions of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

wallpapers Low Carbon 2020-08-04 >
The harmful electrode material is the carrier of lithium ions and electrons in the battery charging process and plays the role of energy storage and release. In the battery cost, the harmful electrode material accounts for about 5%-15%, one of the essential raw materials for lithium-ion batteries.

The global sales volume of anode materials for lithium batteries is about 100,000 tons, mainly in China and Japan. According to the current growth trend of new energy vehicles, the demand for anode materials will continue to grow. At present, the global lithium battery anode materials are still dominated by natural/artificial graphite. New anode materials such as mesh carbon microspheres (MCMB), lithium titanate, silicon-based anodes, HC/SC, and lithium metal are also increasing.

As a carrier for lithium-ion insertion, the anode material must meet the following requirements:

The insertion redox potential of lithium ions in the negative electrode matrix is ​​as low as possible, close to the possibility of metal lithium so that the battery's input voltage is high;

A large amount of lithium in the matrix can be reversibly inserted and deintercalated to obtain high capacity;

During the insertion/de-embedding process, the main structure of the negative electrode has little or no change;

The potential redox changes with the insertion and removal of Li should be as little as possible so that the voltage of the battery will not change significantly, and stable charging and discharging can be maintained;

The intercalation compound should have good electronic conductivity and ion conductivity, which can reduce polarization and enable high-current charge and discharge;
The host material has a good surface structure and can form a good SEI with the liquid electrolyte;

The intercalation compound has excellent chemical stability in the entire voltage range and does not react with electrolytes etc. after forming SEI;

Lithium ions have a significant diffusion coefficient in the primary material, convenient for rapid charge and discharge;

From a practical point of view, the material should be economical and friendly to the environment.

Many elements are also put forward for the future trend of anode materials around the requirements for improving the energy density, safety, rate, and long life of lithium-ion power batteries. Based on the several materials mentioned above, each has its advantages. Its future direction still needs to be comprehensively measured by market and technology.

1. Lithium-ion battery anode materials will develop towards high capacity, high energy density, high rate performance, and high cycle performance.

2. At this stage, lithium-ion power battery anode materials are graphite-based carbon anode materials. Surface coating modification of graphite-based carbon anode materials can increase compatibility with electrolytes, reduce irreversible capacity, and increase rate performance. An essential point of the current promotion.

3. Lithium titanate, a harmful electrode material, is doped to improve electronic and ion conductivity as an essential improvement direction at this stage.

4. Although the toxic electrode materials such as hard carbon, soft carbon, and alloy have higher capacity, the problem of cycle stability still plagues us. The research on its modification is yet being explored and improved. Due to the market's high energy density, The accelerated demand for cores may urge the development and application of such materials.

5. Although the lithium metal negative electrode has a high energy density, there is no practical solution to its inherent safety problems such as lithium dendrites. Its large-scale practical application will take time.

Trunnano is one of the world's largest manufacturers of lithium battery anode materials. If you are interested, please contact Dr. Leo at brad@ihpa.net.

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