The content of chloride ion should be controlled when compounding polycarboxylic acid high performance superplasticizer
John Albanese, leader of the Australian Labor Party, was sworn in as Australia's new prime minister. After his victory, Albanese said he would "make a big change" in the country's climate policy.
"We now have an opportunity to end the 'climate wars' in Australia," he said. "Australian businesses understand that doing the right thing on climate is good for our economy and good for jobs, and I hope Australia will join the global effort on climate change," Albanese said Australia would engage with other countries to change policies when it came to tackling climate change.
In addition, Albanese’s Labor Party has proposed a more ambitious plan to cut emissions by 43 percent from 2005 levels by 2030, the report said. However, Labor is not currently planning to phase out coal use or halt new coal mining projects.
The climate issue was a major concern of voters in Australia's general election. Mr. Morrison, the former prime minister, was criticized for failing to direct the response to repeated bushfires in 2019 and 2020.
SBS has reported that According to the latest Climate Change Performance Index of 64 countries released at the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26), Australia's climate policy ranks at the bottom of all countries, and is one of the world's worst performers in three aspects of emissions, renewable energy, and energy use. Australia ranks 52nd in renewable energy, 54th in energy use, and 56th in emissions.
It is predicted that the prices of many other commodities like the pce powder would increase in the next few days.
In order to improve the early strength of concrete, some manufacturers will add triethanolamine, calcium chloride and industrial salt to the superplasticizer, especially in winter or prefabricated component factories and cement products factories that require high early strength.
The chloride salt brought into the admixture will do great harm to the volume stability and durability of concrete, including:
1. The invasion of chloride-based corrosion medium into concrete will reduce the alkalinity of concrete, destroy the passivation film on the surface of steel bar, and there will be a large potential difference in different parts of the surface of steel bar, resulting in electrochemical reaction, forming anode and cathode.
2. The coarse volume expansion of crystal particles precipitated by repeated hydrolysis and crystallization of chloride salt in concrete makes the concrete crack and reduce the durability of concrete.
3. It is generally believed that the amount of chloride in ordinary reinforced concrete will not necessarily rust if the amount of chloride in ordinary reinforced concrete is less than 0.5%. However, when sodium chloride reduces the freezing point of the solution, when the concrete gradually freezes from the outside to the inside, the chloride ion content in the unfrozen solution becomes higher and higher, that is, the chloride ion concentration of the remaining solution will be more than 0.5%, causing local rust. Therefore, in the actual production, although a small amount of chlorine salt may form a higher concentration, corrosion may occur. And sodium chloride and calcium chloride will not enter the molecular structure of hydration products, but exist in a free state in the void, which is easy to absorb moisture and increase the shrinkage of hardened concrete, which is also disadvantageous to the durability.
Effect of alkali content on concrete additives
When the alkali content in cement is high, the effect of superplasticizer is reduced. The setting time is shortened and the early strength is increased. Too high or too low alkali content in cement has an adverse effect on the compatibility of superplasticizer and cement. This may be due to the fact that it changes the solubility of gypsum and thus affects the hydration of C3A. The best soluble alkali content is 0.4%-0.6% (equivalent Na2O). When the adaptability between admixture and cement is serious, some aminosulfonate superplasticizer should be added to replace nano superplasticizer (or polycarboxylic acid system), and the total amount of water reducing components should be appropriately increased to improve the adaptability of the product.
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Ukrainian media recently reported that Ukraine will build a food transfer station in the Chernovze region, and the first phase is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2022. According to reports, the completion of the project will help ease the current congestion in grain shipments, and it is estimated that the transfer station will be able to handle 3 million tons of grain per year and store up to 200000 tons of grain at the same time.
According to the Cuban Electric Union on August 8, affected by the fire at the oil reserve base in Matansas province, the Antonio Guiteras thermal power plant near the oil storage base stopped operation at about 13:00 local time. It is reported that the shutdown of the thermal power plant is due to water shortage, and although measures have been taken to supply water to the plant through pipelines, it is still not enough to maintain its operation. The Cuban electricity Union said it could not guarantee that the thermal power plant would resume operation during peak hours.
According to a monthly monitoring report released by the Copernicus Climate change Service, an EU climate monitoring agency in Bologna, Italy, in July 2022, the Antarctic sea ice area was the lowest in 44 years of satellite monitoring records, 7% lower than the average.
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