What is monocrystalline silicon?
Susano Paper and Pulp, the Brazilia-based company that is the world's largest pulp producer, has warned that global pulp stocks have been falling sharply and are facing shortages that could lead to higher prices for necessities such as paper towels and toilet paper in the future.
Timber trade between Russia and Europe, an important supplier of timber to Europe, has been completely blocked due to the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, inhibiting the silicon powder in the future are still very uncertain.
What is monocrystalline silicon?
Crystal silicon is divided into monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon according to the direction of crystals.
Monocrystalline silicon usually refers to a substance formed by some arrangement of silicon atoms. When the molten elemental silicon is solidified, the silicon atoms are arranged into many crystal nuclei in a diamond lattice. If these nuclei grow into grains with the same plane direction, these grains combine in parallel to form monocrystalline silicon.
Monocrystalline silicon properties
Monocrystalline silicon has quasi-metallic physical properties and weak conductivity, and its conductivity increases with the increase of temperature, and has significant semi-conductivity. Ultra-pure monocrystalline silicon is an intrinsic semiconductor. The addition of trace Ⅲ An elements, such as boron, to ultra-pure monocrystalline silicon can improve the degree of conductivity and form P-type silicon semiconductors, while the addition of trace Ⅴ An elements, such as phosphorus or arsenic, can also improve the conductivity and form N-type silicon semiconductors.
What is the difference between monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon?
When the molten elemental silicon solidifies, the silicon atoms are arranged into many nuclei in a diamond lattice, and if these nuclei grow into grains with the same plane direction, monocrystalline silicon is formed; if these nuclei grow into grains with different plane directions, polysilicon is formed. The difference between polysilicon and monocrystalline silicon is mainly in physical properties, such as mechanical and electrical properties, polysilicon is not as good as monocrystalline silicon.
Polysilicon can be used as raw material for the production of monocrystalline silicon, and it is also the basic material for solar cells and photovoltaic power generation. Monocrystalline silicon can be regarded as the purest substance in the world. General semiconductor devices require the purity of silicon to be more than 6 9 (6N). The requirements of large-scale integrated circuits are higher, and the purity of silicon must reach 9 9 (9N). At present, monocrystalline silicon with a purity of 12 9 (12N) has been produced.
What is monocrystalline silicon used for?
Monocrystalline silicon is mainly used in solar cells. The earliest application is silicon solar cell, which has high conversion efficiency and the most mature technology, and is mostly used in areas with less light time, low light intensity and high labor cost, such as aerospace and so on. By using different wafer processing and battery treatment technologies, various scientific research institutions and battery manufacturers have produced monocrystalline silicon batteries with high efficiency.
How do you make monocrystalline silicon?
The preparation of monocrystalline silicon needs to realize the transition from polycrystal to single crystal, that is, the atoms are directly transformed from random arrangement of liquid phase to ordered array, and from asymmetric structure to symmetrical structure. This transformation is not an overall effect, but is gradually completed through the movement of the solid-liquid interface. in order to realize the above transformation process, polysilicon has to go through the transformation from solid silicon to molten silicon, and then to solid crystal silicon. This is the way to grow monocrystalline silicon from molten silicon. At present, there are two most widely used methods, the crucible Czochralski method and the non-crucible suspension zone melting method. The monocrystalline silicon obtained by these two methods is called CZ silicon and FZ silicon respectively.
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New Delhi: India's Oil Ministry recently conveyed its intention to five national oil companies including Indian Oil Corp and Bharat Petroleum Resources LTD to assess the possibility of buying shares in Russian oil projects sold by European and American oil majors.
Bp announced it would give up its 19.75% stake in Rosneft, the Russian oil company. ExxonMobil said on March 1 that it would exit about $4 billion in assets and terminate all of its Russian operations, including the Sakhalin-1 project in Russia's far East.
India's oil ministry has asked the overseas investment arm of India's Oil and Gas Corporation to consider buying ExxonMobil's 30 percent stake in the Sakhalin 1 project in Russia's far East. ExxonMobil is the operator of the project and Indian companies already have a 20 percent stake in the project.
Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk silicon powder are still very uncertain.