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Graphene and Its basic research

Graphene and Its basic research
Graphene is a new material in which carbon atoms connected by sp² hybrids are closely packed into a single-layer two-dimensional honeycomb lattice structure. Graphene has excellent optical, electrical, and mechanical properties, and has important application prospects in materials science, micro-nano processing, energy, biomedicine, and drug delivery. It is considered a revolutionary material in the future. The physicists Andre Gaim and Konstantin Novoselov of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom successfully separated graphene from graphite using the micromechanical exfoliation method, and therefore jointly won the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. The common powder production methods of graphene are mechanical peeling method, redox method, SiC epitaxial growth method, and thin-film production method is chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
Basic Research
Graphene has a special significance for the basic research of physics. It enables some quantum effects that can only be demonstrated theoretically before can be verified through experiments. In two-dimensional graphene, the mass of electrons seems to be non-existent. This property makes graphene a rare condensed matter that can be used to study relativistic quantum mechanics-because massless particles must move at the speed of light Therefore, it must be described by relativistic quantum mechanics, which provides theoretical physicists with a new research direction: some experiments that originally needed to be carried out in giant particle accelerators can be carried out with graphene in small laboratories.
Zero energy gap semiconductors are mainly single-layer graphene, and this electronic structure will seriously affect the role of gas molecules on its surface. Compared with bulk graphite, the function of single-layer graphene to enhance the surface reaction activity is shown by the results of graphene hydrogenation and oxidation reactions, indicating that the electronic structure of graphene can modulate the surface activity. In addition, the electronic structure of graphene can be correspondingly changed by the induction of gas molecule adsorption, which not only changes the concentration of carriers but also can be doped with different graphene.
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